Copper (Cu) is a trace element that is essential for most
animals, including humans. The influence of copper upon human health is
due to the fact it is part of enzymes, which are proteins that help
biochemical reactions occur in every cell. Copper is involved in the
absorption, storage and metabolism of iron. The symptoms of a copper
deficiency are similar to iron deficiency anemia. Copper may be absorbed
by both the stomach and small intestinal mucosa, with most absorbed by
the small intestine. Copper is found in the blood bound to proteins.
Copper is utilized by most cells as a component of enzymes involved in energy production (cytochrome oxidase) and in the protection of cells from free radical damage (superoxide dismutase). Copper is also involved with an enzyme that strengthens connective tissue (lysyl oxidase) and in brain neurotransmitters (dopamine hydroxylase and peptidyl alpha amidating monoxygenase). One of the proteins, ceruloplasmin, transports copper as well as helps convert iron to a form that can be transported to other tissues. The average level of copper stored in the body is from 50 to 120 mg, with most of this in the liver. Excess dietary copper can also lead to high copper levels in the kidney. However, under normal situations, not much copper is excreted via the urine. Most copper is excreted via bile that is released into the gastrointestinal tract, with minimal copper reabsorbed by intestinal cells. The uptake of copper and elimination through the bile allows copper to be conserved and tightly regulated.
Importance and deficiencies:Copper is an essential trace mineral in human nutrition. Deficiency states can be accompanied by Anemia, decreased white blood cell count, and osteoporosis. Symptoms may also include abnormal glucose tolerance, arthritis, myocardial disease, arterial disease, and neurologic problems. Some people who were deficient in copper have found relief from the above symptoms after their intake was adjusted. The evidence appears strongest in regards to cardiovascular disease and immunity. Copper deficiency has also been shown to increase the vulnerability to infections, and their severity. We also now know that copper is required for normal infant development, red and white blood cell maturation, iron transport, bone strength and cholesterol metabolism.
Copper deficiency has been observed in premature infants and infants suffering from malnutrition. Overt symptoms in adults are rare, but may occur with long term shortage or, possibly, in those who consume zinc supplements for a period of time.
Diet recommendations: The estimated safe and adequate intake for copper is 1.5 - 3.0 mg/day. Many survey studies show that Americans consume about 1.0 mg or less of copper per day. Copper is found in foods such as nuts [0.2 to 0.5 mg/28 g (1 Tbsp.)], shellfish (1.0 to 3.7 mg/serving), organ meats (3.8 mg/serving of beef liver) and legumes (0.2 mg/serving). Grains, grain products and chocolate have appreciable levels of copper. While these food items are good to excellent sources of copper, the absolute amount of copper absorbed may be influenced by other dietary components.
Copper absorption may be decreased by excess dietary iron or zinc. Conversely, too much copper may cause an iron deficiency. Vitamin C supplementation results in decreased copper status. In rats, large doses of vitamin C can lead to copper deficiency. Other dietary components have an influence upon copper status, but not necessarily absorption. Feeding rats either sucrose or fructose, as opposed to glucose or cornstarch, decreases copper status and exacerbates the signs of copper deficiency.
Toxicity: Cases of copper toxicity are rare but may occur. Excess copper consumption may lead to liver damage. Intake of supplements exceeding 3 mg copper/day for a protracted period of time may be cause for concern. Doses of 10 mg/day over several weeks may lead to toxic symptoms, such as weakness and nausea.
Genetic Conditions relating to copper: There are two well known genetic diseases affecting copper metabolism. Menkes' kinky-hair disease is a problem with copper transport or absorption. Wilson's disease is characterized by increased liver copper content, leading to severe hepatic damage, followed by increased brain copper levels and neurological problems. Menkes' disease results in pathology resembling copper-deficiency, as opposed to the pathology of Wilson's disease, which resembles copper-toxicity. The Menkes' gene codes for a P-type ATPase that has a mutation that prevents copper absorption in the intestine.IMPORTANCE:
Physical Symptoms of Low Copper:
Psychological Symptoms of Low Copper:
Causes of Low Copper:
THE MEDICAL CONDITIONS THAT CAUSES LOW COPPER:
Conditions are rare, but common in infants who are premature.
Menkes' syndrome is a hereditary disorder causing copper deficiency. Symptoms: kinky hair, mental retardation, and low copper level in the blood and a failure to synthesize the enzymes that require copper.
Copper levels are more often too high than too low. High copper can be toxic.
Physical Symptoms of High Copper:
Psychological Symptoms of High Copper:
Causes of High Copper:
THE MEDICAL CONDITIONS THAT CAUSE HIGH COPPER:
Wilson's Disease is a condition that causes copper to accumulate in the tissues and cause extensive damage. Affects 1 in 30,000 people. The liver does not secrete copper into the blood or excrete copper into the bile. Low blood levels, high in the brain, eyes and liver causes cirrhosis. First symptoms: brain damage, tremors, headaches, inability to speak, incoordination and psychosis.
Temporary controls; coffee, caffeine in soda and some drugs
Copper Food Sources:
Copper has been used to Successfully treat: